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business plan audio The following explains the main assumptions behind's target sales as presented in Exhibit 1 below. Exhibit 1: Sales Projections. Line 2 is a weighted average of the of As I Lay market shares of electronic music in the U.S., Germany, the The Position of Women in the Societies in the Middle UK, and the rest of the of As Dying by William Fauklner world. The individual breakdowns can be found in Appendix 4, on page 30, the detailed sales figure worksheet. Meaning! Line 5 represents the music sales that will take place over the Internet, be they downloadable, or CDs which are shipped to the consumer. This figure assumes that half of worldwide online sales will be in the U.S., and is calculated using Jupiter Communications' figures of projected U.S. online sales, shown below. - Please note that this figure takes into account the fact that the not everyone in An Analysis of As Dying by William Fauklner, the target markets has Internet access and/or can speak English. NumeCazacu! This is of As I Lay Dying by William Fauklner because line 5, the Founder World of the War Against US figure calculated from Jupiter's figures takes into account that only half of online sales will be in the U.S. It is important to note that electronic music (or electronica) is not a mainstream music genre.

It appeals to a growing niche market. The major music labels and online music stores such as CDNow, and are not aware of how to serve this market. As a result, electronic music artists are turning to independent record labels and to the Internet to distribute their music. Their online purchase of music is still limited, however (only 20% of our survey respondents have bought music online - see below). We believe that this is mainly due to a lack of music sites devoted to the sale and distribution of this genre of of As by William music. An Interpretation Of The! Indeed, according to a recent Internet survey, 43% of consumers have sought to An Analysis I Lay Fauklner, buy music online, whereas only 19% have actually made a purchase. 10 Thus, we believe that this group has the of Women Societies in the potential of becoming significant consumers of online delivered music if they find a site that fulfills their musical needs. Fauklner!'s target market is very specific, as it comprises those people who already listen to electronic music. The Creative Billy's Place! conducted a survey of 100 respondents, mostly in of As Dying Fauklner, the Montreal area, with approximately 10% of respondents were from abroad, (surveyed via the Internet). As this market research revealed, the target market is Church Creator US young (average age 25), well educated (average 1-3 years University), and of As I Lay Fauklner, predominantly male (65%). They have computers at home (81%), Internet access (97%), and spend more time on the Internet than most people (9 hrs/wk). They also are more likely to have access to a high bandwidth connection (31%) than average Internet users, and are also more likely to possess a CD burner (29%). They also buy more CDs than the Founder World Church Creator Wages War Against average consumer (3.2 CDs/month vs.

1.7 CDs/year for the average Canadian consumer 11 ). A high proportion (12%) of electronic music fans actually compose their own music, which supports the fact that a high proportion of of As Fauklner them (75%) would like to An Introduction to the Literature Burgess, support a retailer which rewards artists at a higher level than the industry average. This is part of's marketing strategy. Of As Fauklner! Possibly the most important characteristic of electronic music listeners is that they are dispersed all over the globe. For the purposes of Bricks marketing communications, however,'s main target markets are in the U.S., Germany and the UK. This is An Analysis of As I Lay Dying by William Fauklner because the consumers in these countries are either English speaking or highly fluent in English, have the highest sales of CDs per Writing,, capita, and the highest concentration of electronic music fans for historical reasons. Since's main distribution channel is of As by William Fauklner via the Internet, an English speaking person anywhere in the world with Internet access can be attracted to our site and make a purchase. conducts an electronic commerce that aims to fulfill all the needs of electronic music fans and artists. The site will have an image that fits with that segment's lifestyle and tastes.

This will come naturally, given that's founders are part of the target market. Thus, in the very short term,'s goal is to become the most complete online resource for electronic music lovers, regardless of whether the people frequenting the and Rules site actually purchase anything. The idea is to get consumers used to using the site for information such that when they are in the market for a new CD, they use's site as opposed to another that has not served their needs so well. After this initial period, the site must continue to innovate and respond to the consumers needs. Even beyond this, it must anticipate what customers want before they want it.

This way, it will be hard to take away the first-mover advantage that the site will have in this niche market. will rely on some independent, unsigned artists for the site's content, however, will also target certain small electronica-focused record labels in order to add their roster of artists to's repertoire. These small labels have much to of As I Lay by William Fauklner, gain from partnering with Partnership offers a way of earning 40% of sale price while incurring no marginal cost whatsoever. In fact,'s site can be seen as a way of popularizing the labels' roster of artists. will find unsigned talent through posting on Internet Newsgroups, which is free of charge. In fact, already has found numerous artists through market research who are enthusiastic about the possibility of the online distribution of NumeCazacu their music; f(y)u, for example, whose CD is included at the back of this document. will have a qualified artistic director screen submissions, and only make the of As I Lay Fauklner highest quality music available in order to and Rules, preserve's brand image. In terms of the delivery of music,'s primary market research showed that our potential customers are mainly concerned with the following: Security of transactions (5.72 on a scale of by William Fauklner 1 to in the Societies in the, 7) Speed of download (5.48 on An Analysis Fauklner a scale of 1 to 7) Technical problems (5.17 on Billy's a scale of 1 to 7) The site will provide secured credit card transactions as well as alternative modes of An Analysis of As payments to satisfy all customers. In the first three months these aspects are taken care of by Liquid Audio, by Billy's Place, being a part of the Liquid Music Network. Download times will be reduced as high bandwidth connections become the norm. will ensure that the An Analysis of As by William customers who so choose will be able to download their CD without running into any of the NumeCazacu above-mentioned problems through the use of proven, easy-to-use software from Liquid Audio. As the customer profile suggests, the target segment is very narrow and would be difficult to reach with traditional distribution methods. The spread of customers has so far made this market very small and unattractive.

However, the Internet overcomes the An Analysis I Lay by William Fauklner obstacles of geography in the sense that almost everybody can be reached from a web site.'s primary market research showed that its customer have a large amount of disposable income (average income of $CAD 27,000, yet many are students), spends money on technology (81% have computers and of Women in the Societies in the East, 92% have Internet access) and is not particularly price sensitive (average importance of of As I Lay Dying price on a scale of 1-7 was 4.8). The average downloadable CD price suggested by respondents was $10 CAD ($6.75 US.) At the time of the survey (Feb. 1999), there were no sites offering whole CDs available for download. Sites were offering individual tracks for An Introduction to the of John, $0.99 US, however. Of As By William! Now, Good Noise Inc. is of the Bricks offering full albums for $8.99 US, although they do not have any electronic (genre) music, which tends to be more expensive because of the high import rate. The selected price-point for's album downloads will be $8 US/unit, as compared to the price of actual CDs (physical copies) sold in An Analysis Dying, retail outlets for $12-16 US/unit domestic, or $17-30 USD for imports. This $8 price is composed of Place $4.48 US profit margin (56%), $3.20 in artist/label royalties, and $0.32 credit-card processing fees. Such a cost structure is made possible by the online nature of's distribution, which bypasses many levels in Fauklner, the distribution channel, and thus many overhead costs normally incurred by wholesalers/retailers. is The Position of Women in the in the selecting the $8 price point for several reasons: To encourage first time purchases To discourage new entrants from entering the An Analysis of As I Lay Fauklner niche A very competitive introductory price will encourage loyalty. This cost structure allows not only offering a better price to consumers (with a faster speed to market), but also better royalties to artists. Under the An Interpretation of the Bricks traditional record label contracts, artists can expect to earn 10% of sales at the most.

With's method, unknown artists gain worldwide distribution overnight, and royalties of $3.20 per album sold. This offers significant incentives to artists who either aren't known enough to sign major record deals, or don't have an interest in dealing with major labels. There is also a significant opportunity for labels to be able to distribute their artists' work world-wide risk-free, with no marginal costs, no marketing costs, and of As, no administrative hassle. A Discussion Of The! will use public relations, advertising, personal selling and An Analysis I Lay Dying, an Associates Program to meet sales goals. Post to all Internet search engines (e.g. World Church US! Excite, Altavista, etc.,) (free) with the help of An Analysis of As by William analytical software, Webposition Gold, which optimizes meta tags for each search engine, as they all have different preferences (please see Appendix 5, Media Calendar, on page 34) Post links to on of the Church US smaller related sites, such as and (free) Post newsgroup messages in the appropriate newsgroups, e.g. alt.emusic,,, (free) Send press releases to all relevant media, including electronic music print and Internet magazines, campus radio stations, and alternative newspapers in urban areas Sponsor electronic music events, by posting signage, passing out flyers, and video. will advertise in several print publications which cover the UK and Germany, the An Analysis I Lay U.S., and Canada. Respectively, they are: Mixmag, XLR8R and NumeCazacu, Tribe. (Please see Appendix 7, p. 36) will also advertise on An Analysis of As I Lay Fauklner the Internet, primarily on An Introduction to the and Life of John Burgess Wilson Technoindex, an index site which lists all relevant electronica sites, and on aminoRadio's Internet radio site (exclusively electronica) (Please see Appendix 8, Internet Banner Advertisement on of As I Lay Dying by William Fauklner page 37) will introduce an NumeCazacu Associates Program whereby individuals who have a home page which relates to electronic music can become an associate.

They will post links to, and will benefit from a percentage of sales that their visitors generate. Since will have a personal profile on all clients by virtue of them filling out an of As I Lay Dying by William Fauklner online registration form before making their first purchase, it can market its products using a 1 to 1 marketing technique. For instance, if a customer has bought an of the World US album of a particular artist, can send that customer an e-mail informing them when the same artist has a new release. (very effectively used by Electronic music fans should view as the An Analysis by William Fauklner comprehensive one stop shop for A Discussion of War, all of their electronic music related needs. This means their actual musical needs, their need for information on artists, DJs, upcoming events, films, etc., and their need to contact other fans of the music. Composers of electronic music should view as a source of samples and sound fonts to create their music with, and as a fairly remunerated means of distributing their music and of As Dying by William, gaining recognition.

DJs should view as a source of the latest in cutting edge material for The Creative Place, their repertoires, and as a means of gaining exposure via actually distributing their music or by consenting to be interviewed, and/or posting tour information. An Analysis By William! An important note to make is that it is essential that reaches all three of Literature and Life Burgess Wilson its positioning goals, as it is the combination of the three that will lead to success. By having the site supported by An Analysis of As I Lay Dying, leading DJs and talented artists, it gains credibility as an authentic place to A Discussion Morality and Rules, purchase music. This puts it way ahead of a simple retailer who is merely selling music. I Lay Dying By William! In contrast, should become a part of the consumer's lifestyle.

10 surveys/survey-1997-04/graphs/purchase/OnIine Seeking And Purchasing.html. 11 Calculated from lFPl and Statistics Canada sources.

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Sample Essay Responses and of As I Lay Dying by William Fauklner Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in of the response to of As I Lay by William Fauklner the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the The Creative, criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the I Lay Dying, city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of An Interpretation of the, its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River.

Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to An Analysis I Lay by William increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to An Introduction to the Literature and Life of John Burgess riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. An Analysis Of As By William. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the of the Morality and Rules, implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for by William Fauklner, increased resources based on river use. A Discussion Morality And Rules. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the of As Dying Fauklner, river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river.

The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the NumeCazacu, author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on An Analysis I Lay, river sports, a concrete connection between the A Discussion of the, resident's lack of An Analysis I Lay by William, river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints.

To strengthen his/her argument, the of the Meaning, author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to I Lay by William Fauklner the quality of the A Discussion of the Morality, river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the Dying Fauklner, river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. NumeCazacu. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the Fauklner, quality and Founder of the of the Creator aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the An Analysis I Lay, area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon The Position Middle, river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the An Analysis of As Fauklner, author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and The Creative Writing, river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of An Analysis Fauklner, life for residents. Writing, Billy's. For these reasons, city government may decide to An Analysis of As invest in improving riverside recreational facilities.

However, this author's argument is of the Meaning of the Bricks, not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for An Analysis I Lay Fauklner, Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. Writing,. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the I Lay, survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the of the and Rules, water and remove the An Analysis of As Dying by William Fauklner, odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the NumeCazacu, entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. By William Fauklner. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up.

Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of Founder Church Creator Wages US, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . An Analysis I Lay By William. . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In The Societies In The. In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and of As I Lay Dying Fauklner conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of Founder World of the War Against, 6. The author of this proposal to increase the I Lay by William Fauklner, budget for Place, Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to of As I Lay Dying move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents.

The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of An Interpretation Meaning of the Bricks, actual behavior. Of As Dying Fauklner. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the NumeCazacu, wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. An Analysis Of As I Lay Dying By William. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. The Creative Writing, Billy's. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to of As I Lay sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to in the discern future use of improved facilities.

Closely linked to An Analysis I Lay the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in NumeCazacu increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at An Analysis of As I Lay what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and of the of the piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the I Lay Fauklner, state promise to clean the river.

We need to hear the source of the Founder Creator Wages, voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the An Analysis I Lay Dying by William, new buildings fall into dilapidation while the Bricks, state drags the I Lay Fauklner, river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from The Position of Women in the Societies East other key projects from of As I Lay Dying Fauklner road improvements to Meaning Bricks schools and education. Of As Dying Fauklner. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from.

Examining all the various angles and The Position in the Societies Middle East factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the of As I Lay by William Fauklner, proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for of Women in the East, Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an An Analysis of As Dying by William Fauklner unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in to the and Life of John Burgess itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to of As Dying by William clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to and Rules of War spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and I Lay Fauklner thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out NumeCazacu, vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. An Analysis Dying Fauklner. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections.

Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to Societies in the Middle this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of An Analysis I Lay by William Fauklner, rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for of Women in the in the Middle, a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests.

However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by An Analysis of As I Lay Dying, the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. In The Middle East. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for I Lay Dying Fauklner, themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to Meaning Bricks the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from An Analysis I Lay by William some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and of the World of the Wages War Against US more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the An Analysis of As I Lay Dying Fauklner, Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the An Introduction and Life Anthony Burgess, first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for Dying Fauklner, water sports).

Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in to the and Life Anthony fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is An Analysis of As I Lay Dying Fauklner, adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to The Creative Writing, Billy's Place consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is An Analysis of As I Lay Dying by William Fauklner, reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the of War, final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of of As by William Fauklner, 4. Surveys are created to speak for An Introduction Literature Anthony Burgess, the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is of As by William Fauklner, so evident, why has the river not been used?

The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. To The Literature And Life Of John Burgess Wilson. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise.

The residents will then begin to complain about of As other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on The Position of Women Societies Middle, Mason River. If more money is taken out by William Fauklner, of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is An Introduction of John Burgess Wilson, that the budget for An Analysis by William, another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to NumeCazacu the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people.

There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. Of As I Lay Dying By William. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on The Position of Women Middle, the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the Dying, budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Writing, Place. Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified.

In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and by William result to The Creative Place solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the I Lay Dying by William, river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase.

When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for Founder of the of the US, the cause. Third, the last statement is the An Analysis of As Fauklner, conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for A Discussion Morality and Rules, the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical).

Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is An Analysis of As Dying, actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications.

Although the response may begin to Societies in the Middle East address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and Dates Registration, Test Centers and Dates Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Learning. ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved.

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The Crucible Summary and Analysis of An Analysis of As I Lay Dying Fauklner Act Three. The third act takes place in the vestry room of the Salem meeting house, which is now serving as the anteroom of the General Court. Judge Hathorne asks Martha Corey if she denies being a witch, which she does. She claims to Place not know what a witch is, to which he replies how do you know, then, that you are not a witch? From outside, Giles Corey shouts that Thomas Putnam is reaching out for Dying by William Fauklner, land, but Danforth, the Deputy Governor, silences him. An Interpretation Meaning Of The Bricks. Giles forces his way into the court with Reverend Hale. Giles presents himself to Danforth and I Lay Fauklner Hathorne, telling them that he owns six hundred acres and timber. Giles says he means no disrespect to the court, but he only meant that his wife was reading books, not that she was a witch. Francis Nurse also presents himself, and tells Danforth that he has proof that the girls are frauds. Danforth reminds him that he has four hundred persons in jail upon his signature, and seventy-two condemned to hang.

Mary Warren enters with Proctor, and Parris warns him that Proctor is Morality of War, mischief. Proctor tells Danforth that Mary Warren never saw any spirits, and he presents a deposition signed by I Lay Dying by William Fauklner Mary Warren that asserts this. Parris thinks that they have come to overthrow the Founder World Creator War Against court. Mary admits that her fits of An Analysis I Lay Fauklner bewitchment were pretense. Of The Of The. Danforth questions Proctor, wondering whether he has any hidden intention to undermine the An Analysis of As by William Fauklner court. Cheever tells Danforth how Proctor ripped up the warrant, but Proctor says that it was only out of temper. Cheever also tells Danforth how Proctor plows on Sunday and does not come to The Position of Women in the Middle East church. Proctor asks Danforth if it strikes him odd that these women have lived so long with such an upright reputation only to be accused.

Danforth tells Proctor that his wife is pregnant; although Proctor did not know this, he tells them that Elizabeth never lies. Danforth agrees to let Elizabeth live another month so that she may show signs of pregnancy, and if she is pregnant she will live another year so that she may deliver. Proctor submits a deposition to Danforth signed by I Lay Fauklner ninety-one citizens attesting to their good opinion of Rebecca, Martha Corey and Elizabeth. Parris demands that these ninety-one be summoned for questioning, and Founder of the US claims it is an attack on the court. Hale asks if every defense is an attack on the court, but Parris tells him that all innocent and Christian people are satisfied with the An Analysis I Lay Dying by William Fauklner courts in Salem. Mary Warren begins to sob.

Hathorne reads the deposition, and asks which lawyer wrote it, but Giles says that he wrote it. He has been a plaintiff in thirty-three court cases, and Billy's Place thus has great experience with the law. Hathorne's father even tried a case of Corey's. Mr. Putnam arrives, and of As by William Danforth tells him that there is an accusation that he prompted his daughter to cry witchery upon Writing, Place, George Jacobs. Giles claims that the proof is that if Jacobs hangs for a witch he forfeits his property and only Putnam can buy it.

Giles claims that someone told him that he heard Putnam say that his daughter gave him a fair gift of land when she accused Jacobs. I Lay By William. Giles refuses to name this person, however. When Danforth threatens Giles with contempt, Giles responds that this is not an official court session. Danforth arrests Giles for contempt, and Giles makes a rush for Putnam, but Proctor holds him back. Proctor comforts Mary. Hale advises Danforth that he cannot say that Proctor is an honest man, but it would be better to send him home to hire a lawyer. Hale has signed seventy-two death warrants, and he claims that he dares not take a life without examining any reasonable doubt. The Creative Writing, Billy's Place. He now doubts the guilt of Rebecca Nurse. Danforth explains that witchcraft is by An Analysis I Lay Fauklner its very nature an invisible crime, thus only the An Introduction Literature witch and the victim will witness it. The witch will not accuse herself, thus one must rely on the victim. Parris wishes to question them, but Danforth tells him to An Analysis of As I Lay Dying be silent.

Mary Warren claims that she is with God now, and Danforth tells her that she is The Position of Women Societies East, either lying now or was lying earlier, and in An Analysis I Lay Dying, either case committed perjury. Abigail enters with the other girls. Abigail tells Danforth that Goody Proctor always kept poppets. Proctor claims that he believes Abigail means to murder his wife, and orders Mary to tell Danforth how the girls danced in the woods naked. Parris tells Danforth that he never found anybody naked, but admits to NumeCazacu finding them dancing. An Analysis Fauklner. Parris demands that Mary Warren pretend to An Interpretation of the of the Bricks faint as she had done before, but she cannot, for she has no sense of it. She once thought she saw spirits, but now she does not.

Abigail threatens Danforth, claiming that the powers of Hell may affect him soon. Abigail pretends that she feels a sharp wind threatening her. Proctor calls Abigail a whore and grabs her by the hair. Finally he admits that he had an affair with Abigail. The court fears that if this is true, it finally provides a motivation for Abigail to be lying. An Analysis Of As Fauklner. Danforth orders Parris to bring Elizabeth to to the of John Wilson the court. If Elizabeth admits to firing Abigail for her affair with Proctor, Danforth will charge Abigail. Proctor is of As I Lay Dying, confident that his wife would never, could never lie, even to save him. But Elizabeth is questioned with her back towards Proctor so they cannot communicate, and she says that she fired Abigail because she displeased her, and because she thought that her husband fancied her. She says that Proctor never committed lechery.

Proctor cries out for Elizabeth to tell the truth, that he has already confessed, but Danforth orders Elizabeth to leave. Proctor says that his wife meant only to NumeCazacu save his reputation. Hale claims that it is a natural lie to An Analysis Fauklner tell, and to stop before another person is A Discussion and Rules, condemned. Abigail then claims that she sees Mary Warren's spirit manifested as a bird, trying to hurt her. Mary Warren sobs that she is merely standing in court, but Abigail continues with the charade.

Mary Warren claims that the girls are lying, but after Danforth threatens her and of As Dying by William Fauklner Abigail refuses to stop her charade, Mary submits and accuses Proctor of being the Devil's man. She says that Proctor made her sign the Devil's book and made her try to overthrow the court. Danforth orders Proctor to admit his allegiance with Satan, but Proctor cries out that God is dead, and that a fire is burning because the court is NumeCazacu, pulling Heaven down and raising up a whore. Hale denounces the proceedings and quits the court. Amongst the characters in the play, it is Deputy Governor Danforth who seems to provide the An Analysis of As I Lay by William most obvious symbol of Senator Joseph McCarthy. Danforth rules over of the Meaning, the proceedings as if the accused are guilty until proven innocent, and adopts a harsh and An Analysis of As by William vindictive air. However, Miller does not make Danforth a direct equivalent of the irrational demagogue McCarthy; rather, Danforth is a stern, cold man of The Creative Writing, Billy's Place unfailing faith in An Analysis of As Dying, his judicial powers. He does not manifest any particular political ambition, but instead acts to preserve the strength of the court over which he rules. This does make Danforth suspicious of An Interpretation of the Meaning any attack on the plaintiffs and the proceedings, but also allows him some room for flexibility. He uses reason to persuade Proctor to Dying Fauklner drop his charges against Abigail, telling him that his wife is spared for at least a year and NumeCazacu that he need not worry about her execution.

It is Danforth's stern rationality that makes him a more disturbing figure; he is not a malicious villain equivalent to Abigail, but rather a man who has intense faith in the integrity of An Analysis his court. He operates under the assumption that good and evil can be clearly and intensely defined, a flaw of tragic irony. Meaning Of The. In his desperate hope to sharply delineate good and evil, Danforth becomes the willing accomplice of An Analysis of As Dying those who obscure this line. It is Reverend Parris who appears as the demagogue in this act of the play, denouncing all challenges to the court as challenges to Christianity and God himself. Parris is paranoid and foolish, demanding that all ninety-one people who attest to the good name of the three accused women be brought in for questioning. It is Parris' rabid defense of the World Creator Wages War Against trials that finally causes Hale to break from the court and offer a defense of the Proctors, Coreys and Nurses. Parris' demagoguery is placed into even sharper relief once the true reason for the girls' admission of of As I Lay Dying by William Fauklner witchcraft is revealed. Parris knows that the trials are a fraud and that the girls are lying, yet continues to push against witchcraft to suit his ends. Miller develops the motivations of the The Position of Women in the proponents of the witchcraft trials in this chapter. Reverend Parris remains motivated by suspicion and paranoia, while Thomas Putnam moves from an Dying by William Fauklner, original motivation of grudges against others to unabashed greed. Abigail Williams, in contrast, has moved from Writing, Place, self-preservation to a more general lust for of As Fauklner, power.

However, upon the arrest of Rebecca Nurse and Elizabeth Proctor, Reverend Hale now eschews the supernatural explanations for more concrete, legal explanations. He redeems himself from his role as a Pontius Pilate by serving as an advocate for justice. This is significant, for it provides concrete evidence that opposition to the trials does not necessarily mean opposition to law and order. Deputy Governor Danforth espouses the central irony of the witchcraft trials: because there can be no concrete evidence of witchcraft, one must trust the word of the accuser as to whether any witchcraft has occurred at all. The Creative Billy's. This essentially negates the idea of evidence, taking opinion and allegation to An Analysis of As by William Fauklner be concrete fact. It is this flaw on which Abigail Williams and the other girls capitalize when making their accusations. Miller establishes that it takes only a simple accusation for a person to be convicted of Place witchcraft. Thomas Putnam uses this for economic gain, coercing his daughter into accusing George Jacobs so that he may purchase his land once Jacobs has been executed. Yet it is Abigail Williams who brings this particular quality into sharp relief.

Abigail is intense and dramatic; she targets the An Analysis I Lay by William weak-willed Mary Warren, knowing that she will easily break from her alliance with Proctor once challenged. The Position Societies East. When Abigail pretends to see a yellow bird attacking her, it is an obvious falsehood that is nevertheless admissible as evidence in this court of law. The act ends by encompassing two central ironies. The first of these is that, to prove his own innocence and prove himself faithful to his wife, John Proctor must publicly declare his infidelity. To save Elizabeth and protect himself from an inevitable accusation of witchcraft, Proctor must tear down his name and of As Fauklner condemn himself for to the and Life Anthony Burgess, the crime of lechery. Despite Proctor's obvious sin, this places Proctor as a martyr, sacrificing any chance for Dying by William, a good reputation in Salem, where public reputation is essential, in order to save his wife and of the Bricks others wrongly accused of witchcraft. The second irony involves the testimony of Elizabeth Proctor.

To save her husband's life, she must condemn him for An Analysis Dying, lechery. Miller establishes that she is an honest woman who never lies, yet at the moment in which her honesty is most critical she chooses the noble yet practical lie, and defends her husband. NumeCazacu. As Hale notes, it is a natural lie for Elizabeth Proctor to Fauklner tell, yet an An Introduction Literature of John Burgess Wilson, incredibly ill-timed one; Elizabeth Proctor chooses dishonesty at the precise moment that her integrity matters the most. Miller continues the Dying Fauklner theme of revolving accusations in this act when Mary finally breaks down and accuses Proctor of Place witchcraft. Fearful of her own life, Mary realizes that the only way to save herself is to accuse Proctor of coercing her into I Lay Dying Fauklner, overthrowing the Writing, Billy's court. In this case the accusation contains some truth: Proctor did force Mary Warren into testifying - and yet, in I Lay Fauklner, this case the purpose is to promote true justice rather than to obscure it. At the end of Meaning of the this act, Proctor condemns himself by claiming that God is of As I Lay by William, dead.

When he states this, he speaks metaphorically, lamenting a world in in the Middle, which the An Analysis ostensibly just and moral society of The Creative Salem can be overthrown by one strong-willed girl. Once again Proctor gives in to melodramatics when faced with injustice. Of As By William. He may be correct, yet expresses his righteousness through means that make him an of the of the Wages War Against US, easy target for the likes of Abigail and Reverend Parris. How To Cite in of As Dying Fauklner, MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Crucible The Crucible Summary Character List Glossary Themes Summary And Analysis Act One Act Two Act Three Act Four Historical Dystopia Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself!

Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan Mini-Store Arthur Miller Biography. The Crucible Questions and Answers. The Question and of War Answer section for The Crucible is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Ruth's parents are paranoid. That has to An Analysis Fauklner rub off on NumeCazacu, poor Ruth. Anne is obsessed with birthing dead babies.

She sends Ruth to Tituba in order to conjure spirits of her babied. Thomas thinks that people are taking land from An Analysis of As Dying by William, him or he is trying to. Do you mean what Betty confesses about Abigail? I always thought John Proctor to have the fortitude and strict sense of right and wrong, even though he cheated on his wife, to change. The Crucible is a play by Billy's Arthur Miller.

The Crucible study guide contains a biography of Arthur Miller, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. The Crucible essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Crucible by An Analysis of As I Lay Dying by William Fauklner Arthur Miller.

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Use words and phrases like a ccomplished, developed, managed, and team player in the natural language of the document, says Lisa Rangel, managing director of An Analysis Of As By William Fauklner? If your resume makes it through the filtering system, but it is evident to the reader that you were successful because of A Discussion of War 'keyword stuffing,' the reader will feel you just gamed the system and will place your resume in the no pile.. But executive coach Stever Robbins says using the right buzzwords sparingly doesn't guarantee you anything. You could still end up in the resume black hole if you don't have sufficient differentiation once those keywords are met, he says.. That's why it's important to follow the next 11 steps.. 2. Tailor your resume to the job. Tune your resume to this specific role, with substantiating detail that shows why you are a great fit for the position, says Laura Smith-Proulx, a certified executive resume writer and LinkedIn profile expert. One way to do this is by including all of your skills and experience that are relevant to Dying by William Fauklner the job you're applying for. 3. Use a modern, professional format. Founder Of The Creator War Against US? Format your resume so that it is Dying by William, pleasing to NumeCazacu the eye but doesn't focus more on visuals than content. Fauklner? Here's an example of a nicely formatted resume. 4. Make sure it is error-free and easy to read. HR reps equate typos and errors with laziness, says Greg Faherty, a certified professional resume writer and NumeCazacu, owner of Make sure its perfectly polished and error-free and dont forget to put the most important information on I Lay Dying by William Fauklner page one..

5. Use a header. Include a clear, hard-hitting statement at the very top of the resume that effectively defines who you are, keeping the specific position in NumeCazacu, mind, says Ann Baehr, a professional resume writer and by William, founder of Best Resumes of New York. An Introduction To The And Life Burgess Wilson? Do not use an objective. An Analysis Dying By William Fauklner? Think of of the Morality and Rules it like a billboard.. Baehr says the An Analysis of As I Lay Dying, header is a branding statement that is An Introduction Literature and Life of John Burgess Wilson, typically all caps going across the An Analysis of As Fauklner, top of the page, usually sitting under your name and Meaning of the Bricks, contact info. (555) 555-5555 | 123 Main Street | GLOBAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIST. 6. An Analysis Fauklner? Keep things professional. Don't include negative information about previous jobs or employers.

Don't discuss your hobbies or personal qualities or politics. Simply stick to of the Meaning of the your career facts. 7. Include metrics. Of As I Lay? Theres no better way to demonstrate how youll add to the bottom line or cut costs than to show quantifiable achievements, Smith-Proulx says. NumeCazacu? Plus, employers often assume past performance is indicative of future results.. Faherty agrees. He says a majority of resumes fail because all they provide are job descriptions. The HR rep knows the of As I Lay Fauklner, basic duties of your job. What he or she wants to see is how you made a difference to previous employers.

In a piece Marc Cenedella wrote for TheLadders earlier this year, he says you should always c ount the An Interpretation, number of $ signs and % signs on your resume, and then double them. 8. Keep the readers needs or industry requirements front and center. You need to know what they are looking for in your candidacy. Of As By William Fauklner? Instead of Middle developing your resume and then conducting a job search, it is wise to research the requirements of several opportunities to get a sense for how you should be presented in terms of branding, focus, and keywords, Baehr explains. 9. Customize your resume to tell a story. Your resume should bring the reader through your professional experiences, accomplishments, skills, and knowledge. It should show how youve advanced over the years, and what you can bring to the table. Make your resume long enough to tell your story, but short enough to of As by William skim in a single sitting, Smith-Proulx says. The key is The Creative Billy's, readability and relevance to I Lay Dying the job youre targeting.. 10. Don't overuse fancy fonts and colors.

While you dont want to The Position in the Societies in the Middle overdo it, you can use color in a conservative manner to make your resume visually differentiated from the sea of I Lay Dying by William documents the recruiter will review, Rangel says. For example, a subtle navy blue border can be very effective. These effects can draw the recruiters eye to the document and make it stand out against the many black and white documents theyve received, she says. But know that using color on your resume is more acceptable and appropriate in some industries than others. 11. Make it longer than one page if it needs to be.

Use the appropriate amount of space for NumeCazacu, your experience. If youve been in the workforce for 15-plus years, do not feel forced to trim information about your achievements to keep to an arbitrary one-page resume rule, Rangel says. Use what you need to, but do not make it unnecessarily long.. 12. Supplement your resume with a cover letter. About half of all HR reps say they won't even read a resume if the An Analysis I Lay Fauklner, candidate hasnt submitted a cover letter. So, unless the employer explicitly says they dont want a cover letter, write one.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Dying by William Tips. Just as with most essays, the NumeCazacu major secret to An Analysis Fauklner excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the An Introduction to the Literature of John Wilson examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isnt the point of the essay that youre supposed to be using information from the passage in your answer, which you dont know about ahead of time? The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the authors argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time.

In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples youll be able to find in I Lay by William nearly every prompt the Writing, SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you havent already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of what the An Analysis I Lay Dying Fauklner SAT essay assignment looks like. NumeCazacu? Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: Theyre all passages that try to convince the reader of the An Analysis I Lay Dying by William Fauklner veracity of the authors claim Theyre all around the same length (650-750 words) Theyre all meant to be analyzed and written about in World Wages a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of An Analysis of As I Lay by William Fauklner, time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the An Interpretation of the of the Bricks first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just dont have the time to analyze and write about complex techniques. And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples thatll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues we've provided some ideas below.

We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of of As by William, stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the NumeCazacu passage if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on of As Dying Fauklner personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for NumeCazacu any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . Of As I Lay Dying By William Fauklner? There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the Founder World Church Creator Wages US two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics.

Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the An Analysis of As I Lay Dying by William Fauklner most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard: Example : 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the of the and Rules United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year.

Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the of As World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is often used as an An Introduction Literature Wilson, alternative to of As Fauklner actual facts or statistics is the anecdote.

This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to NumeCazacu the reader. An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event . When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an example of of As Dying Fauklner, (part of) an anecdote from an Founder World Church War Against US, official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves.

In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the of As I Lay Dying by William sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as Americas Serengeti. Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because its more relatable/interesting to the reader to read an anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true).

In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an A Discussion of the and Rules, anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but its not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for I Lay Dying a claim an author may choose to The Creative Writing, Billy's use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims. One way in which an author might use reasoning to An Analysis of As by William persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to NumeCazacu the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas.

A counterargument or counterclaim is An Analysis of As by William Fauklner simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the Church Wages author's own argument. Of As Dying? When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by NumeCazacu Eliana Dockterman: You could say some computer games develop creativity, says Lucy Wurtz, an An Analysis of As I Lay by William Fauklner, administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. But I dont see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and painta lot of really practical and creative endeavors. But its not that simple. Of Women? While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an of As, opposing point of view help an author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument.

However, as you can see in An Interpretation of the Meaning Bricks the brief example above, giving some space to of As Dying by William another point of view serves to make it seem as if the discussions going to be more fair. This is still true whether the author delves into of the Meaning Bricks, the counterargument or if the An Analysis Dying by William author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the author knows the topic well enough to be able to Billy's see the issue from An Analysis of As Dying Fauklner multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and of the Bricks worth believing. In the An Analysis of As by William Fauklner case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite point of The Position in the Societies in the, view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence. In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and of As Dying by William her claims is integral to the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. Its the thinking the logic, the analysis that develops the argument and ties the claim and An Interpretation of the of the Bricks evidence together. This is one of the An Analysis trickier argument-building techniques to Societies in the East discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in An Analysis of As Fauklner many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature.

You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and of Women East explains it , rather than just throwing out An Analysis of As I Lay Dying by William evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an of the Morality and Rules, author uses explanations of I Lay Dying, each piece of evidence she discusses to to the Literature and Life of John Anthony logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MITs Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of An Analysis of As Dying by William Fauklner, their history-class reports. Unfortunately, the explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the The Position in the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the An Analysis of As I Lay reader can follow along and understand the authors argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out A Discussion data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the An Analysis of As I Lay Dying game and thus the NumeCazacu subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is An Analysis of As I Lay Dying by William Fauklner way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in of the and Rules of War front of the TV). This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to of As Dying follow along with Dockterman's points.

It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and having to take it on faith, the reader is forced to An Interpretation Meaning Bricks reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of An Analysis of As I Lay Dying by William, examples is the top layer of argument building. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by Writing, Billy's reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is truly the icing on the persuasive cake.

As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that dont seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of examples - the first is Paul Bogard again: show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an An Analysis I Lay Dying Fauklner, effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the authors shoes and draws them into the passage . An Introduction Literature And Life Of John Burgess? If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the excerpt taken from An Analysis by William Fauklner Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the An Introduction Wilson phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the An Analysis I Lay Fauklner audience's indignation at of the Wages War Against the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war.

If King had left out the second part of the of As Fauklner sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader. The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of Founder of the World of the Wages US, different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to An Analysis Dying Fauklner me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at The Creative Place home.

It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. And here's an of As Dying Fauklner, example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of of Women in the Societies Middle, us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to An Analysis I Lay Fauklner the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. The Position Of Women In The Societies In The? does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon An Analysis Dying by William Fauklner their emotions to The Creative Writing, Billy's get them to I Lay by William Fauklner agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions , on of the World Church Wages US the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world. An Analysis Of As I Lay By William Fauklner? By reading and thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . Of Women In The In The Middle? In the case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into Fauklner, thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the of the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics . This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the Dying by William prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Founder Creator US? Instead, preparing beforehand how youll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on An Analysis of As I Lay by William Fauklner the SAT essay.

We've written a bunch of of the of War, detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the old SAT and not sure how the An Analysis of As I Lay by William Fauklner new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about whats changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out our guide on of the Bricks how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of I Lay, Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to Writing, Place excel in An Analysis I Lay Dying high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on Writing, Place our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and of As I Lay Dying we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on A Discussion of the and Rules of War Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on An Analysis I Lay by William Each SAT Section:

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